WEDDING BANDS SOUTH WEST | VENUES
We've teamed up with the lovely folks at Wedding Spot to bring you short descriptions of some of the most amazing venues in South Wales. Click on the drop down lists below to see if your venue is featured. You can be safe in the knowledge that most of the bands managed by our parent company Music HQ have had the pleasure of playing them at some point. If you need any further information or advice on anything band related to do with the venues, please feel free to contact: firstname.lastname@example.org
+ BRISTOL VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Avon Gorge Hotel Wedding Band The Avon Gorge Hotel is located in the heart of Clifton Village in Bristol. This historic facility offers amazing views of the Clifton Suspension Bridge, said to be one of the world’s greatest bridges.
Colston Hall Wedding Band Whether you are a music lover, a fan of the arts or just searching for somewhere different, Colston Hall is an icon on the British artistic landscape.
The Square Club Wedding Band On your wedding day, why not experience something different to what the large corporate hotels offer? At The Square Club they will guarantee your big day is tailor-made to match your requirements in one of Bristol's most looked for venues.
Novotel Bristol Centre Wedding Band Novotel Bristol Centre is an ideal setting to hold you wedding day at. Located in the heart of the city of Bristol, 4* Novotel Bristol Centre is next to Temple Meads station, Bristol Cathedral and shopping and entertainment areas; and Bristol airport is just 15 km away.
Arnos Manor Hotel Wedding Band The unique style of the Arnos Manor Hotel is best described as Georgian Gothic, maintaining its original focus and design from the 18th century when it was once the home of the prosperous Bristol merchant William Reeves.
Holiday Inn Bristol Filton Wedding Band The Holiday Inn Bristol Filton is a venue that is conveniently located just 15 minutes away from the City Centre and 5 minutes from the Parkway Train Station. It is well suited for business and leisure travellers as it is set within 16 acres of land and features its own fishing lake.
+ GLOUCESTERSHIRE VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Pittville Pump Room Wedding Band Pittville Pump Room really has it all in terms of elegance and regal magnificence. A more romantic venue in Gloucestershire is almost unimaginable.
Mercure Gloucester, Bowden Hall Hotel Wedding Band The Grade II listed 4* Mercure Gloucester Bowden Hall Hotel is nestled in the gorgeous Gloucestershire countryside, set in a 12 acres area of scenic parkland with a lovely lake.
Winford Manor Wedding Band Winford Manor is located very close to the Bristol International Airport and its team assures high quality and personalised solutions for couples thinking about getting married here.
The Gables Wedding Band The Gables hotel offers outstanding facilities and outdoor spaces and is gracefully situated in a countryside setting for your special wedding day surrounded by your loved ones in Gloucestershire.
Eastington Park Wedding Band Eastington Park the manor house built in 1815 is the magnificent wedding destination you are looking for to host an elegant and classy event. It offers stunning venue spaces, with customised services in a perfect location.
Leigh Court Wedding Band Built in the early 19th Century, Leigh Court is among the South West’s most luxurious and elegant wedding venues. This is the ideal location for celebrating stylish celebrations with magnificent backdrops such as the high entrance colonnade and 25 acres of lush Gloucestershire countryside.
The Kings Hotel Wedding Band The Kings Hotel a stunning 18th century town house provides an excellent background for weddings full of beauty and grace
De Vere Cotswold Water Park Hotel Wedding Band The De Vere Cotswold Water Park is a four star venue celebrated for its lovely scenery and photographic backgrounds.
Thornbury Castle Wedding Band Thornbury Castle, one of England’s most idyllic wedding venues, will be the perfect place for a memorable wedding. Get carried away by superb medieval architecture, a majestic Tudor Hall, luxurious bedrooms, award winning food service and romantic walled gardens.
Berwick Lodge Wedding Band Berwick Lodge is a privately owned hotel located on 18 acres of land and sporting gorgeously designed rooms. With a prestigious restaurant, bespoke menu service, and impeccable yet friendly service, this venue has everything you could wish for your ceremony.
Elmore Court Wedding Band Elmore Court is an amazing and welcoming Grade II* listed private family home, situated in the centre of Gloucestershire in a 1,000 acre area of lovely English countryside with impressive views over the Cotswolds and the River Severn.
Eastwood Park Wedding Band Eastwood Park is an award winning spectacular Victorian country house tracing its origins back to the 16th century. Overlooking marvellously maintained gardens and 200 acres of lush meadows and woodlands, this iconic venue is set among the rolling hills of the Gloucestershire countryside.
The Greenway Hotel & Spa Wedding Band The Greenway Hotel & Spa is an Elizabethan manor house, surrounded by landscaped grounds and Cotswold Hills that will make a scenic setting to celebrate the happiest day of your lives with your loved ones in Cheltenham, in Gloucestershire.
Stonehouse Court Hotel Wedding Band Stonehouse Court Hotel is a 17th century manor house set in six acres of incredible grounds which overlook the Stroud Water Canal and rolling hills of the Stroud Valley, making a lovely place to hold your wedding.
Chester house hotel Wedding Band Chester House Hotel is set in a charming country village with honey coloured stone bridges over the melodious meanderings of clear crystal waters of the river Windrush. This location will provide a gorgeous backdrop to your perfect wedding day.
Berkeley Castle Wedding Band Do you want to feel and be treated like royalty on your big day? Then Berkeley Castle is the place for you. Its enchanting interiors and breath-taking exteriors will offer you endless photo opportunities and make your occasion memorable.
Cripps Barn Hire Wedding Band Sitting in beautiful countryside near Bibury in the Coln Valley, Cripps Barn is a secluded 18th century Cotswold stone barn, which has been transformed into a place for celebrating weddings and special celebrations.
Whitemead Forest Park Wedding Band Whitemead Forest Park is nestled in the enchanting area of the Forest of Dean. With breath-taking views and all the modern facilities and amenities, your wedding day will turn out absolutely spectacular.
Hatherley Manor Hotel Wedding Band The idyllic setting of the Hatherly Manor Hotel provides the perfect backdrop a country Gloucestershire wedding. The hotel has been widely praised for the beautiful setting, the first class service, the detail oriented staff and delicious cuisine.
Ingleside House Wedding Band At Ingleside House, they take every wedding as personally as you certainly will. This outstanding wedding venue located in Cirencester, Gloucestershire, boasts everything you might need for a remarkable wedding surrounded by your loved ones.
Montpellier House Wedding Band Montpellier House is a gracefully renovated Regency town-house in stylish Montpellier, Cheltenham. Its luxurious reception space is furnished with classic antiques and furniture which makes the ideal setting for your important event.
Alveston House Hotel Wedding Band Alveston House is a wedding venue and hotel located north of Bristol. The elegant building and gardens provide the perfect backdrop for any wedding. The team offers high-quality catered cuisine and top-notch service to ensure that your wedding day goes as smoothly as possible.
Thornbury Golf Centre Wedding Band Thornbury Golf Centre is famous for its professionally manicured greenery which allows for plenty of stunning photo opportunities. They are licensed to hold civil ceremonies for your convenience.
Hilton Puckrup Hall Hotel Wedding Band The Hilton Puckrup Hall Hotel has a lot of green surroundings, with a golf course and The Malvern Hills in view, spreading over 140 acres of land. A lovely croquet lawn is another beautiful view on the grounds that serves as great entertainment for guests.
Charingworth Manor Wedding Band With the most beautiful and historic of English attractions just a short drive away, Charingworth Manor provides an ideal setting for an authentic country wedding.
Hallmark Hotels Gloucester Wedding Band One of Gloucester's newest settings to celebrate your wedding situated in the middle of the Cotswolds, Hallmark Hotels Gloucester is a contemporary, boutique style 4* hotel and an excellent place for your wedding day celebrations.
Cheltenham Town Hall Wedding Band Dating back to the turn of the 20th century and beautifully located in the middle of the horseracing capital of England, Cheltenham Town Hall is a really emblematic setting to hold your wedding celebration.
Ellenborough Park Wedding Band Dating back to the 16th century and sitting in the midst of its own gracefully landscaped gardens and surrounded by gorgeous countryside, Ellenborough Park is a grand, fully renovated manor house which provides the ideal wedding setting in the Cotswolds.
Dumbleton Hall Hotel Wedding Band Dumbleton Hall Hotel is a traditional 19th century manor house set in 19 acres of private gardens and woodland with a private lake. Surrounded by the stunning views over Bredon Hill, Cotswold Hills and Broadway Tower, they are situated on the border between Worcestershire and Gloucestershire.
Cowley Manor Wedding Band Cowley Manor is a lovely mansion venue located in the very heart of the English countryside in the graceful rolling Cotswold hills.
Stone Barn Wedding Band The Stone Barn is a beautiful, old Cotswold barn, peacefully isolated in the countryside near Aldsworth. The barn has an elegant and simple aesthetic, perfect to give your wedding that unique, romantic and intimate feel.
Lodge Park Wedding Band Create an event to remember the rest of your life. Perfectly located just off the A40, between Oxford and Cheltenham, Lodge Park will make a special and romantic location for your elegant and glamorous wedding day in Gloucestershire.
Cotswold House Wedding Band This award winning venue is a veritable jewel set in the crown of the fabulous Cotswolds. Cotswold House Hotel and Spa are set in two acres with landscaped gardens in the middle of Chipping Campden, one of the most beautiful towns in England. I
Clearwell Castle Wedding Band Clearwell Castle is located among the majestic Forest of Dean and it's the perfect location for couples seeking a stunning venue for their fairy tale wedding.
The Cheltenham Chase Hotel Wedding Band The Cheltenham Chase Hotel is located near the Cheltenham racecourse and follows that theme with tasteful horse decor in the halls and rooms. There is a lavish spa for guests to relax in and plenty of other amenities and comforts provided.
Jenners Barn Wedding Band A hidden gem surrounded by graceful grounds. Jenners Barn will make the ideal romantic place for your gorgeous country wedding in Gloucestershire.
Manor By The Lake Wedding Band Manor By The Lake is a beautiful Victorian Renaissance manor equipped to host your modern love story. Whether it's a small affair or a grand ball, the staff is prepared to help you with every important decision.
Royal George Hotel Wedding Band Seek no more the ideal backdrop for the happiest day of your life to share with your family and friends. The Royal George Hotel is an actual coaching inn dating back to the 18th century and located in the graceful rustic Cotswold village of Birdlip, in Gloucestershire.
+ CORNWALL VENUES | SOUTH WEST
The Guildhall - St Ives Wedding Band Search no more for a unique, historic, versatile and affordable wedding venue. At The Guildhall they will offer you a really special wedding experience at this historic venue in the centre of St Ives, Cornwall.
Boconnoc Enterprises Wedding Band Cornwall's iconic Boconnoc House is an award wimming venue from many well-known experts including Sotheby’s Restoration Award. This family who own the house have worked painstakingly to bring it back to its former self.
Cornish Tipi Weddings Wedding Band Cornish Tipi Weddings is based in Pendoggett, Cornwall. The company provides outdoor weddings with lights, decorations, floral settings and more. This elegant and natural background to the ceremony will make stunning pictures as well as beautiful memories.
Tregenna Castle Wedding Band Trust your big day to the 2015 Best Wedding Venue winner of the Cornish Brides Awards. The view you will experience once you have passed through the gates at Tregenna Castle is nothing short of spectacular.
St Mellion International Resort Wedding Band An excellent venue for those wishing a stunning wedding surrounded by impressive grounds. Located in a 450 acre area of gorgeous Cornish countryside, St Mellion International Resort boasts a scenic golf course which will make the ideal background to your wedding photographs.
Hotel Tresanton Wedding Band If you dream of having a wedding with a view, then Hotel Tresanton is the perfect venue for you. Situated in the scenic village of St Mawes, Tresanton offers an amazing view of the sea with elegant and contemporary décor.
Rose-in-Vale Country House Hotel Wedding Band If you’re looking for a relaxing countryside location to host your Mithian wedding, look no further than Rose-in-Vale Country House Hotel. This 18thcentury manor house provides an idyllic and relaxing atmosphere for any wedding.
Trelowarren Wedding Band Set on the Lizard Peninsula, Trelowarren offers a truly romantic location with impressive views over either the Grade 1 listed house or across the undulating countryside and the wooded Helford River Valley.
Boscundle Manor Wedding Band Located in St. Austell in Cornwall, Boscundle Manor is a charming hidden secret, tucked away in serene gardens and woodlands. Built in the 18th century, this manor is the perfect romantic backdrop for your wedding ceremony and reception.
The Green Cornwall Wedding Band The Green is an excellent setting for a Cornish wedding whether you are looking for something more casual or more formal. Ideally situated in the lovely Lyhner Valley, nearby Rilla Mill, it sits in rolling countryside overlooking some of Bodmin Moor's most unique features.
Port Eliot Wedding Band Calling on its 400 year history, Port Eliot is an alluring estate waiting to host your wedding reception.
Scorrier House Wedding Band This family run manor home, surrounded by 400 acres of spectacular parkland and beautiful gardens is also within a stone's throw of the beaches of Cornwall's north coastline. You are guaranteed the ideal setting for your wedding day.
Lusty Glaze Beach Wedding Band There is uniqueness and then there is Lusty Glaze Beach. Having your own private cove on the spectacular coast of Cornwall for a day could be as romantic as holding hands on the beach and watching the sun set over the Atlantic as your fabulous day comes to end its this picture perfect setting.
Lantallack Weddings Wedding Band Stunning views across undulating countryside and wooded valleys, majestic open skies and incredible sunsets. Lantallack is an idyllic venue in the heart of south east Cornwall, close to the Tamar valley and only 20 minutes away from Plymouth.
Penmorvah Manor Wedding Band Nothing could be more serene and charming than planning your wedding at the Penmorvah Manor. This venue offers quiet gardens, and woodland that surround the Victorian manor of Falmouth, Cornwall.
Eden Project Wedding Band This is certainly the most alternative venue in Cornwall if not in the UK or the whole world. To host your wedding ceremony, reception, or both, the Eden Project recreates paradise for you in this remarkable location.
Pentillie Castle & Estate Wedding Band Pentillie Castle offers all couples a really unique setting combined with exceptional services and facilities. This 2,000 acre private estate, which is located on the Cornish bank of the River Tamar, is available for exclusive hiring for both your ceremony and your reception.
+ SOMERSET VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Homewood Park Hotel & Spa Wedding Band Sitting amidst 10 acres area of lush country surroundings, Homewood Park boasts the ideal location for your wedding day in Somerset. This serene setting in one of Bath's most elegant hotels, will give you a tremendous feeling of warmth and wellbeing from the very beginning.
DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Bristol South - Cadbury House Wedding Band Situated among picturesque rolling hills in Somerset, the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Bristol South-Cadbury House is the ideal venue for an elegant and sophisticated wedding celebration.
Clevedon Hall Wedding Band Clevedon Hall is a stunning Victorian Mansion located outside Bristol, offering newlyweds the possibility of taking endless breath-taking photo opportunities.
The Clifton Club Wedding Band In the centre of Clifton village is The Clifton Club, an exclusive Historic venue. It overlooks the Mall Gardens and is licenced for ceremonies in all of their rooms. In addition, the entire establishment can be made available for your personal use as you host your wedding reception.
Maunsel House Wedding Band One of the most majestic wedding venues in all Somerset area, perfect for couples planning a wedding with a difference. Dating back to the 13th century Manor, the romantic grace of Maunsel House lies in the family-home feeling full of character, history and beauty.
The Manor Hotel Wedding Band Look no further for your wedding venue in Somerset. Located in the very heart of Yeovil, Somerset, The Manor is a unique venue dating from the 18th century, full of character and with a recently restored interior styling: the perfect setting to celebrate your big day.
Ashton Court Mansion Wedding Band Ashton Court Mansion offers the most glorious quintessentially English setting for a perfect wedding day; it would be difficult to find a more elegant venue in Somerset.
Grand Pier Wedding Band With your backdrop as the Bristol Channel and located a quarter of a mile out to sea, The Pier in Weston-super-Mare is everything that a unique wedding venue should be.
The Mount Somerset Hotel & Spa Wedding Band This truly is a house in which to celebrate the day of your dreams. With a reputation for being one of the finest wedding venues in Somerset if not the entire South West of England.
Priston Mill Wedding Band Priston Mill is a lovely venue located in Bath, Somerset that specialises in hosting weddings and special events on the countryside. This unique setting near Bath and Bristol offers a spectacular rural feel for celebrations of every kind.
The Castle at Taunton Wedding Band A unique and stylish venue in Taunton, Somerset, for both civil and private partnership marriage ceremonies. Known for their delicious food service of its brasserie restaurant, combined with their facilities and services, it will just be the ideal wedding setting for you.
The Longhouse at Mill on the Brue Wedding Band The Longhouse at Mill on the Brue is a gorgeous, romantic and stunning venue, set in the centre of rustic Somerset and overlooking the tree tops of the Brue valley. Licensed for civil weddings, exclusive use and no corkage this may very well be the dream venue that you have been thinking of.
St Audries Park Wedding Band If searching for your wedding venue in Somerset, St Audries Park is the ideal setting for both your wedding and reception.
Brympton House Wedding Band Consider Brympton House for your wedding. Dating back to 1350 and sitting in a 33-acre area of gorgeous rolling Somerset countryside, the former family home of the Earls of West Moreland will absolutely make the ideal backdrop for the most important day of your lives.
Woodlands Castle Wedding Band Near Taunton Town Centre, Exeter and Bristol, Woodlands Castle is situated in 12 acres of private grounds surrounded by woods making the house an almost secret place. You and your guests will actually believe that your wedding is taking place in a land far away.
Yarlington Barn Wedding Band Sitting proudly amidst the rural Somerset landscape, Yarlington Barn is an idyllic wedding venue to escape from the bustle of a busy lifestyle.
Holiday Inn Taunton Wedding Band When it comes to your big day, the Holiday Inn Taunton hotel will offer you an impressive venue for your wedding. It’s a once-in-a-lifetime day and you deserve the best.
Cott Farm Barn Wedding Band The Barn at Cott Farm is a spacious rustic wedding venue between Yeovil and Crewkerne in Somerset. Renovated in July 2016, The Barn comes furnished with handmade tables and chairs, fairy light bedecked wooden beams, dimmable lighting and bunting.
Widcombe Grange Wedding Band Widcombe Grange will make the perfect, exclusive venue for your country house wedding in the delightful countryside of Somerset.
+ WILTSHIRE VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Holiday Inn Swindon Wedding Band The Holiday Inn Swindon is set in beautifully landscaped grounds and is the perfect venue for your wedding. A great venue to celebrate the happiest day of your life with your loved ones.
The Antrobus Arms Hotel Wedding Band Former 17th century coaching inn Antrobus Arms Hotel is situated in the historic town of Amesbury, very near both Stonehenge and Salisbury, and will make an ideal setting for your wedding day.
The Guildhall - Salisbury Wedding Band Renovated to perfection in 2011, The Guildhall in Salisbury is not only home to Salisbury City Council it can be your stunning wedding venue with all of the ceremony and attention to detail attached.
Bishopstrow House Wedding Band The Bishopstrow Hotel and Spa is nestled in the heart of Wiltshire. The hotel is surrounded by 27 acres of woodland and an apple orchard. Guests even have access to a private stretch of the Wylye River.
The George Inn Wedding Band A bucolic location, grand views, excellent facilities and impeccable service; this is what you will get for your wedding at The George Inn, ideally located in the lovely village of Longbridge Deverill, Wiltshire, on the banks of the River Wylye.
The Manor House Wedding Band Great accommodation, delicious cuisine and personalised wedding packages. Located within the beautiful Castle Combe village in the wooded Bybrook Valley and dating to the 14th century, the Manor House will be a bucolic and lovely venue to celebrate your wedding.
Lydiard House Wedding Band Lydiard House is an impressive venue that specializes in providing great facilities, friendly service and tasteful food for your wedding day in Wiltshire.
Bowood Hotel, Spa and Golf Resort Wedding Band Located in the heart of the gorgeous Wiltshire countryside, the Bowood Hotel is a unique venue for your big day. Sitting in a 2,000-acre, it is surrounded by stunning parkland and terraces and boasts grand views of the rolling Wiltshire Downs.
Grittleton House Wedding Band Grittleton House is a magnificent Victorian gothic mansion set amongst 37 acres of beautiful Wiltshire countryside.
Winkworth Farm Wedding Band Winkworth Farm is a family-run eco-friendly wedding venue near the beautiful market town of Malmesbury. In addition, it offers exclusive use for every wedding, so you will enjoy a private celebration with your family and friends.
Cumberwell Park Wedding Band You and your friends and family will enjoy the peaceful and beautiful surroundings of Cumberwell Park for your wedding day.
Cleeve House Wedding Band Cleeve House has an illustrious history and is closely connected with the famous write Virgina Woolf. It offers luxurious function suites, banqueting facilities, wonderful accommodation and tea room for all occasions.
Wellington Barn Wedding Band Just graceful. Surrounded by impressive natural beauty featuring rolling hills and incredible valleys, Wellington Barn will be ideal to celebrate that important occasion in Wiltshire with close family and dear friends.
Longleat House Wedding Band Longleat House and Estate makes a majestic and romantic frame for your big day. This stylish wedding venue is a really wonderful place, combining hundreds of years of history in an Elizabethan stately home and gorgeous parkland with a popular Safari Park.
+ DEVON VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Northcote Manor Country House Hotel Wedding Band Setting in a 20 acres area in the Taw Valley with majestic views, 18th century Northcote Manor Country House Hotel offers the impeccable level of style you should get for the happiest day of your life.
The Cedars Inn Wedding Band A former country house with landscaped gardens and your own private garden area.
+ WORCESTERSHIRE VENUES | SOUTH WEST
Country House Occasions Wedding Band Allow Country House Occasions to keep the planning of your wedding catering simple and stress-free, leaving you to relax and really make the most of your wedding day with you family and friends.
Southcrest Manor Hotel Wedding Band Southcrest Manor Hotel is a splendid Manor house built in 1921. A classic and unique venue on the Worcester and Warwickshire borders that still retains an abundance of original period features.
Gorcott Hall Wedding Band A 16th century Tudor Hall, Gorcott Hall features original beams and open fireplaces. With over five acres of grounds, there is ample opportunity for beautiful and unique wedding photos.
Stanbrook Abbey Wedding Band Choosing your wedding venue is probably one of the most important decisions you will ever make. You want everyone to remember your wedding day indefinitely and for all the right reasons.
Old Rectory House Hotel Wedding Band Old Rectory House is a fabulous Elizabethan mansion with Georgian features dating back to the 11th Century that has only increased in appeal and charm with the passing of time.
Brockencote Hall Hotel Wedding Band The happiest day of your lives deserves an outstanding setting. Celebrate your marriage at Brockencote Hall Hotel in Kidderminster, in Worcestershire, a charming wedding venue where you can be guaranteed that your big day will be as perfect and flawless as you have always wished for.
The Vale Golf & Country Club Wedding Band Set in the heart of the Worcestershire countryside, The Vale Golf & Country Club is a wedding venue not to be missed.
The Wood Norton Wedding Band Discover this treasure in rural Worcestershire, overlooking the quiet flow of the river Avon, near Evesham. The Wood Norton is a majestic example of high Victorian grandeur, with superb terraces and views over amazing gardens.
Stone Manor Hotel Wedding Band Great facilities, impeccable service, delicious food... The historic and graceful Hogarths Stone Manor Hotel is just the ideal Worcestershire wedding venue as you will be guaranteed that your special day will absolutely be memorable.
Wharton Park Golf & Country Club Wedding Band Surrounded by natural beauty and spectacular views offering the ideal background for gorgeous pictures, Wharton Park Golf & Country Club is set in the lush 43 acre Royal Forest with unbeatable photo opportunities.
Gainsborough House Hotel Wedding Band Gainsborough House Hotel will make your wedding a flawless day, with marvellous reception rooms, impressive meal packages and a bespoke level of service to suit your every need.
Huntlands Farm Wedding Band This family-run working farm is a relaxed and informal setting for your wedding or special party. The picturesque 15th century red brick and timber farmhouse enjoys panoramic views across the unspoilt Herefordshire and Worcestershire countryside.
Hartlebury Castle Wedding Band Hartlebury Castle is a unique venue located in Hartlebury, Worcestershire which specialises in providing a spectacular setting to celebrate your upcoming wedding.
Park Hall Country House Wedding Band Park Hall Country House is an estate with 132 acres of beautiful scenery. Set in Worcestershire countryside, the country house is elegant and full of history. In fact, it used to be a residence of Queen Anne's in 1710.
Hagley Hall Wedding Band A fabulous setting for unique weddings in Worcestershire, Hagley Hall is a wonderful Palladian mansion and the home of 12th Viscount Cobham whose family have lived here since the mid-18th century.